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Frodo, Frodo PC and Frodo SC


Frodo comes in three 'flavours' that allow you to decide between speed and accuracy of the emulation.

The line-based emulation 'Frodo'

Frodo is a line-based emulation, i.e. the activities that happen in parallel during one video line in the real C64 are emulated one after the other for the different chips. This offers a reasonable degree of precision of the emulation at a decent speed. There are some things that cannot be emulated with this technique, but it works fine with about 80% of all C64 programs and it is also the fastest of the three Frodo versions.

The improved line-based emulation 'Frodo PC'

Frodo PC is also a line-based emulation but it has some improvements over the standard Frodo:
  • Code in chip registers can be executed
  • Correct calculation of 6510 instruction cycles
  • More precise CIA emulation
Programs that don't work on the standard Frodo or that produce an "Illegal jump to I/O space" message might work with Frodo PC. However, Frodo PC is a bit slower.

The single-cycle emulation 'Frodo SC'

Frodo SC is a special version of Frodo that doesn't work with a line-based emulation but instead with a cycle-based one. That means that the emulator switches between 6510 and VIC in every emulated 2 clock phase. By doing this, Frodo SC achieves an extreme precision (nearly all $d011 and $d016 effects can be emulated), but at the expense of speed. In the settings options, Frodo SC differs from Frodo/Frodo PC in only a few points:
  • The "Cycles per line" settings are not available as the timing of Frodo SC is hardcoded
  • The "Clear CIA IRC on write" hack is not necessary
Apart from that, Frodo SC is operated in the same way as Frodo and also uses the same settings. Frodo SC has only a few incompatibilities to a real C64:
  • On the left and right side of the screen, sprites are not clipped but blanked out
  • Sprite collisions are only detected within the visible screen area (excluding borders)
  • The sprite data fetch ignores the state of BA
  • On BA low and AEC high, the VIC always reads $f in D8-D11
  • Color register modifications are visible 7 pixels too late
  • The TOD clock should not be stopped on a read access, but be latched
  • The SDR interrupt is faked
  • Some small incompatibilities with the CIA timers
  • The readable SID registers are not emulated correctly